- Electrochemical scanning probe methods for studying surfaces and interfaces.
- Battery cycling and electrochemical performance testing.
- In situ high resolution electron microscopy under electrochemical cycling.
- Ultrafast nonlinear laser spectroscopy for studying battery and electrode interfaces.
- Nuclear Magnetics Resonance (NMR) for studying electrochemical transport.
- Dual confocal micro-Raman imaging with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM).