Biofuels are derived from biomass, mostly plant biomass such as wood, grasses, grain and oilseeds, residues from food, feed and fiber crops as well as secondary plant biomass sources such as mill and food processing wastes. Biofuels can also be created animal wastes and waste cooking oils. ORNL has a 30 year history in understanding current and potential biomass feedstocks and in developing bioenergy crops. For 20 years ORNL managed DOE’s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program. Today ORNL through the Bioenergy Science Center, is unlocking the fundamental genetic controls on cell wall construction and deconstruction to enable the better access to the sugars in cellulose – a key component of the cell wall and the precursor to many biofuels. On the more applied side of the spectrum ORNL is a national leader in estimating current and potential biofeedstock supplies and their cost and location.