Thomas A. Carlson (1985)
For ideas and techniques which have opened new frontiers in chemical research and now play major roles in the study, understanding, and use of photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy in studies of "hot atom" chemistry and work with multiply charged molecular ions.
L. G. Christophorou (1990)
For innovative and fundamental contributions to the understanding of the interactions and transport of electrons in gases and liquids, negative ion processes, the interfacing of the gaseous and condensed phases of matter, and the use of fundamental knowledge in the development of gaseous dielectrics, radiation detectors, and pulsed power
Robert N. Compton (1995)
For experimental studies in atomic and molecular physics, particularly developments in the field of nonlinear laser spectroscopy and the physics of negative ions
James M. Corum (1992)
For playing a substantial and lead role in developing and establishing the structural design methodology that is vital to safe and reliable nuclear power, including the development of high-temperature design analysis methods and code rules that are used worldwide.
Sheldon Datz (1987)
For applying molecular beam techniques to study chemically reactive collisions, helping to lay the foundation for the present field of chemical dynamics, and for pioneering studies in accelerator-based atomic physics, ion-solid interactions, and the channeling of ions, electrons and positrons in crystalline solids.
Arthur P. Fraas (1976)
For contributions to the development of new concepts and advanced systems for power generation and conversion, through innovative designs of nuclear reactors for aircraft propulsion and space auxiliary power and concepts for thermonuclear fusion reactor power plants
Fred C. Hartman (1988)
For advances in protein structure and enzyme mechanisms by use of affinity labeling and site-directed mutagenesis.
Eric Hirst (1985)
For pioneering work on energy conservation, including development of energy demand models, data bases, and analyses of energy use trends, which has contributed to federal and state energy policies and programs and to demand-side planning by electric utilities.
George Samuel Hurst (1979)
For advances in neutron and gamma-ray dosimetry, the transport of electricity through gases, and the development of laser-based one-atom detection with applications in nuclear physics, solar neutrino research, and oceanic, geologic, and environmental research
Richard F. Kimball (1979)
For research on the processes involved in the induction of mutations, elucidating the roles and sequences of DNA repair and replication in converting radiation or chemical damage into mutations, and for contributions to the understanding of biological control mechanisms at the cellular level
Wallace C. Koehler (1979)
For work at the forefront of neutron scattering research, for early work on the fundamentals of scattering from ferromagnetic materials, and for significant contributions to understanding the complex magnetic structures and properties of elements and compounds such as the heavy rare-earth metals
Steve E. Lindberg (2000)
For distinguished research on the air/surface exchange of atmospheric trace gases and particles and their interactions with the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, and for pioneering developments in atmospheric sampling methodologies with special emphasis on the global mercury cycle.
Chain T. Liu (1997)
For leadership in the development of high-temperature materials for energy and space applications, based on innovative use of physical metallurgy principles and basic physics knowledge to understand crystal structures and the mechanical properties of structural materials.
Samuel H. Liu (1988)
For fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical solid-state physics that directly relate to experimental programs, including the electronic structure and magnetism of transition and rare-earth metals, metal-electrolyte interfaces, superconductivity, and physical properties of heavy fermion, mixed valent, and fractal materials
Ralph Livingston (1979)
For work in magnetic resonance, including the early evaluation of spins and moments of radioactive nuclei and experiments in nuclear quadrupole spectroscopy, and for the application of electron spin resonance to study free radicals trapped in solids and short-lived radicals in pyrolyzed fluids
Peter Mazur (1985)
For internationally recognized basic research in cryobiology -- the study of freezing and preserving living cells -- which has contributed to the use of frozen cell and tissue banks and stimulated development of a rapidly growing livestock breeding industry using frozen cattle embryos.
Ralph M. Moon (1990)
For fundamental studies of the microscopic structure of magnetic materials using neutron scattering methods, and for contributing to the development of neutron polarization analysis as a productive scientific technique.
Robert V. O'Neill (1996)
For pioneering research in ecosystem theory, ecological modeling, error analysis, hierarchy theory, and landscape ecology and for the development of basic applications in risk assessment and regional environmental analysis.
Lester C. Oakes (1986)
For contributions to advanced control systems for nuclear reactor, including development of control-system and plant protection technologies that permit automated start-up and operation; and to analysis techniques that have led to better understanding of reactor dynamics
Frank Plasil (1999)
For fundamental research establishing fission-imposed limits on rotating nuclei, and for extensive studies of heavy ion reactions from low to ultrarelativistic energies.
Francis G. J. Perey (1979)
For contributions to nuclear data measurement, analysis, and applications, through determination and development of neutron-induced reaction cross sections, high-resolution neutron scattering, the nonlocal nuclear optical model, and uncertainty and covariance information
J. Micheal Ramsey (1997)
For significant and fundamental achievements in laser-based chemical measurement techniques, such as single molecule detection in liquids, and pioneering the efforts in the development of microfabricated chemical instrumentation, including the laboratory on a chip concept.
Rufus H. Ritchie (1989)
For fundamental studies in radiation physics, radiation dosimetry, and surface physics and for pioneering theoretical work on collective electron modes, surface electromagnetic waves in solids, and elucidation of the interaction of charged particles with matter.
Liane B. Russell (1987)
For discoveries of fundamental importance in mammalian genetics, as well as for studies of genetic and developmental effects in mice, which have provided a broad basis for assessment of the genetic risk to humans from radiation and chemicals, including the development of genetic and early developmental tests now used worldwide.
William L. Russell (1976)
For original studies of the genetic effects of radiation in mammals. A world authority on mammalian mutagenesis, he and co-workers provided the experimental basis for estimating the genetic hazards of radiation to man and for the corresponding recommendations of national and international standards bodies
G. Ray Satchler (1976)
For research extending the theoretical description of direct nuclear reactions and nuclear structure, as one of the first theorists to implement the much more refined and detailed treatment of experimental data made possible by computers
Charles D. Scott (1986)
For application of chemical and engineering principles to the development of nuclear fuel processing; separation science and technology; and innovative biomedical and bioprocessing concepts for environmental protection, energy production and conservation, and resource recovery
John B. Storer (1983)
For internationally recognized contributions to understanding the late effects of radiation, radiation carcinogenesis
Curtis C. Travis (1996)
For distinguished research in the field of risk assessment, including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models, interspecies extrapolation, and human exposure to dioxin and other background contaminants, and for significant contributions to environmental policy through pioneering investigations of the effectiveness of remediation technologies and through service on national and international advisory panels and boards
James E. Turner (1987)
For fundamental studies in radiation physics and dosimetry, in research to link the basic physics and chemistry of biological molecules irradiated in aqueous solution, and the physicochemical characterization of chemical pollutants
Richard F. Wood (1983)
For theoretical research on the electronic and vibronic structures and optical properties of defects in ionic crystals, and for work at the forefront of the rapidly developing field of laser annealing of semiconductors, leading to advances in the photovoltaic conversion of solar energy.